The Republic of China (ROC) commonly known as Taiwan is a sovereign state located in East Asia. The Republic of China governs the island of Taiwan which forms 99% of its current territory as well as Penghu Kinmen Matsu and other minor islands. It is the oldest surviving republic in East Asia. Neighboring states include the People's Republic of China (PRC) 160 km (99 mi) to the west Japan to the northeast and the Philippines to the south. Its capital city is Taipei.